Global gas and oil spill occurrence with data base




 Oil Spill Occurrence Data Base, Accident Modeling, Remediation And Prevention Project Context 1. As the existing infrastructure web of oil pipelines round the world ages, and additional lines are added, the number of oil spills which are recorded have increased at a significant rate. It is unclear if this increase represents a real increase in occurrences, or if it represents simply better reporting. The Bank has been involved in several pipeline project evaluations, the assessment of existing pipelines, and on at least one occasion the provision of funding for clean up of major oil pipeline spill. 2. It would be useful to have documentation as to how often such spills occur, where they are located, their cost of cleanup and some indication of prevention measures which are in place, or should logically be put into place. A preliminary search of likely data sources indicates that such a data base does not now exist, and moreover such a base would be of great interest to a number of organizations around the world. 3. Using the reported spills as a base, it is likely that a series of models may be constructed which may be used in predicting the likely density of unreported spills, and be used as a forecasting tool for the number and potential location of future spills


. 4. With such a model-augmented data base in hand, a more detailed search may be made of indicated areas in which the potential for spills is highest, with a view to improving the detection and reporting methodology, and therefore the usefulness of an active spill data base. 5. From a reliable data base and with the assistance of a predictive tool, much proactive anti-spill design work, spill prevention, remediation, repair and training activities relevant to the needs of each area at risk, may be usefully undertaken in advance of future spills. Proposed Project Objective and scope 6. The objectives of this project are three-fold: to build an accurate data base of oil pipeline spills and clean up costs, and an associated predictive model designed to augment the spill data base; to establish procedures and suggest facilties, regulations and institutional structures that can provide rapid-response remediation for future spills in areas of particularly high ask; and lastly, to establish improved design characteristics which will ameliorate spill propensity. 7. The focus of the study will be on oil and product transportation pipelines. Gathering, flow lines and pipelines associated with oil fields, refineries and stock tank areas are excluded from this analysis. It is preferable that study of spills in close proximity to production facilities be studied in conjunction with project-specific studies of the individual refineries etc. 8. Effective Bank intervention, which may follow on the results of this study, would ordinarily be undertaken within the geographical based organization of Bank lending. Therefore this project will be subdivided geographically along lines similar to those of the Bank; i.e.: Latin America Middle East and North Africa sub-Saharan Africa Eastern Europe and Central Asia South Asia East Asia 9. In addition, for control purposes, North America and Europe, both of which have more comprehensive reporting procedures need to be included as well. Existing Material 10. There are no known studies of oil pipeline spills within the Bank. There are a number of petroleum statistical organizations in Europe and North America, however which keep track of numerous petroleum industry parameters, and the initial plan of the search should include contacting all such organizations. In addition major oil companies and oil ministries will be canvassed. Work Program 1 1. The proposed ESMAP activity will include the following work program: (a) Data search for oil pipeline spills, worldwide: A qualified consultant will conduct a data base search through known periodicals, institutions and organizations who are likely to record data pertaining to oil and petroleum product pipeline spillage. Data are to be organized geographically in a manner compatible with Bank organization, and recorded as to source of data and degree of reliability for use in future cross referencing. (b) Creation of a predictive oil spill model or models and update the database: Based on the results of the initial data search, a predictive spill model will be constructed, which will form the basis for a more intensive, focused search of additional spillage in areas indicated to be at high spillage risk. Based on the results of the modeling, areas of potential risk are to be re-investigated.. and the data base updated to project as accurate as possible the number, nature, severity and extensiveness of spills within the developing world. The companion data base which is to be developed in parallel for North America and Europe will serve as a comparison from which further areas of spill risk may be identified and researched further. (c) Develop plans for regional rapid-response remediation facilities: As a result of phase (a) above, areas within each region are likely to be identified as being prone to potential of pipeline spills, either because of the density of the pipeline network, its age, its design or susceptibility to disruption by outside forces. As a result of this, potential sites for spills, the location of regional remediation equipment and trained personnel are to be indicated. Further, the type nature, source and amount of equipment which should be included in such a center are to be indicated, along with the number and qualification of staff trained to use the equipment, and proposals made for training and refresher of remediation skills for the select staff are to be developed. An approximation of the clean up and remediation costs with and without rapid response remediation, will be derived. This cost will be utilized in economic calculations to illustrate to government and regional staff the unity of a proactive as opposed to reactive approach to oil spill cleanup. (d) Develop improved pipeline design characteristics and operating procedures: As a result of analyses of the nature, cause, and types of oil spills, basic planning is to be developed as to mechanisms for improved regional pipeline design parameters. The purpose in this is to take into account regional elements which contribute to such spills, and develop specialized design parameters in order to minimize future such occurrences. This basic planning will include the design of new pipelines, as well as guidelines on the remediation of existing lines which may be implemented during the course of routine maintenance; and improved operating procedures which are designed to minimize spills which are a result of improper procedures. This work will be disseminated to government industry and the regions through a series of seminars and workshops. Duration of Program 12. The duration of the program is approximately 12 months. Budget 13. As shown in Annex 1, the budget requirement for this study is US$367,300. Annex 1 Budget Global - Oil Spill Occurrence Data Base, Accident Modeling, Remediation and Prevention Budget Line Description US$ 11.01 ESMAP Supervision 40,000 1 1.50 Consultant Fees 250,000 11.60 Consultant Travel 25,000 13.01 Administrative Support 6,000 15.00 ESMAP Staff Travel 1 5,000 16.00 Bank Staff Travel 17.00 Local Costs 2 1 .OO Sub-contract 32.00 Training 52.00 Reporting Costs 53.00 Sundries 26,300 99.00 Unallocated Costs Sub-Total 367,300

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