The motherboard is the heart of the computer and also the most neglected part


Abstract: The motherboard is the heart of the computer and
also the most neglected part of the hardware. The main
purpose of the motherboard is to connect all parts of a
computer such as: memory, processor, disks and other devices
in a better and faster way. Unlike other hardware devices
development of motherboard is very unique and has a great
impact on the market. While other devices developed
independently of each other, it depends on the development of
the motherboard whether these devices will work together. The
objectives of this study were to describe the most important
sections of the motherboard and its development starting from
chipsets, through memory, processor, which is one of the parts
that are selected first when designing a computer, to the bus
and the other slots. In addition, there will be a describtion of
the motherboard models and their development. An online
survey was conducted and that gave the answers to the
questions like: how much computer users are familiar with
their motherboards, have they ever had motherboard failures
and what were they.

 The motherboard is a printed board on which are located
the main parts of a computer: CPU, memory, bus and other
internal circuits can be soldered to the motherboard and can
be added into the corresponding sockets and connectors.
The motherboard is often sold separately without the
processor, memory, and additional circuits so that customers
could assemble a computer to suit their needs. [1]
The motherboard is located inside the case and attached
with small screws through pre-drilled holes. The front of the
motherboard contains ports that connect all the internal
components of a computer. There is one slot for the
processor, more memory module slots and several ports to
connect the floppy drive, hard drive and optical drive via
cable-like ribbons. Power from the power supply is provided
to the motherboard with the help of a specially designed
connector. The front side of the motherboard also includes
slots for various cards (video, audio, etc.) that serve to
expand the capabilities of the computer. On the left side of
the motherboard are numerous slots which are used to
connect most of the external input/output devices such as a
monitor, printer, keyboard, mouse, speakers and more.
Motherboard and case are made so that if you use some of
the cards the connections for input/output units are located at
the back of the computer to make them more accessible to
use. [8]
Chipset greatly determines the features of the
motherboard, so the motherboard is sometimes classified
into groups according to them. These additional integrated
circuits are soldered to the motherboard and can not be
changed. They determine the most important features of the
computer: processor type that can be on the motherboard,
memory type, bus, the method of exchanging data with the
environment, etc. [1]
When the IBM (International Business Machines)
constructed the first motherboard for PCs it took six
different chips and later, developing that motherboard, the
number increased to nine different chips that have ensured
the functioning of the system. Building the copy of one of
these IBM systems require more than one hundred
individual chips. Therefore, the price of motherboards was
extremely high and there remained little space to add other
functions. In 1986 the company Chips and Technologies has
introduced a revolutionary component called 82C206 - the
main part of the first chipset for personal computers. The
single chip had all the functions of the main chips of the
motherboard for the AT (Advanced Technology) systems.
This meant that, in addition to the processor, all the major
components of the motherboard can be replaced with a
single chip and that the functionality can be achieved with
an additional 4 chip. That chipset was called CS8220. The
next update of that chipset was NEAT (New Enhanced AT)
CS8221 and had a set of only three chips, and that version
was followed 82C836 Single Chip AT chipset that finally
united all the functional chips into one chip. [2]
Other chip makers have begun to copy the idea of that
chipset, but for most of them the market was short-lived and
unstable, and after just a few years, most of them stopped
producing and the rest were struggling to survive in the
market. This was due to the new manufacturer that came
into the market and in a little more than a year he dominated
the chipset market. It was Intel, and since 1994. he has held
the advantage.
Intel has worked for a short time a special chipset for
EISA (Enhanced Industry Standard Architecture) bus,

 although she eventually was dormant, but Intel got the
inspiration in making chipsets. Intel has become impatient
waiting for chipsets which are adjusted to the new
processors. It took almost two years of waiting for the
chipset that supports the new processors to be developed,
MIPRO 2013/CE 819
and Intel could not sell their processors until the producers
did not make motherboards that support them. Intel's idea
was to simultaneously develop a new processor and a
chipset that supports it, thereby encouraging manufacturers
of motherboards in a faster response since the two main
components are already on the market. Intel tested that with
the presentation of the 420 chipset that is accompanying 486
processor in 1989. This has enabled motherboard
manufacturers to start with the preparation and after just a
few months came the first motherboard that supports it. Intel
soon realized that processors and related chipsets are 90% of
the components in a typical motherboard and in 1993 for
their Pentium processor Intel immediately released their
430LX chipset and a fully completed motherboard. In a year
Intel has dominatet the chipset and motherboard market. [2]
Most previous chipset used multistorey architecture that
includes what is called the North Bridge and South Bridge
and Super I / O chip [2]

 North Bridge chip – connects to the processor, the
AGP and PCI buses and memory. He is actually the
control system.
 South Bridge chip - apart from the North Bridge
chip is connected to the PCI bus and the ISA bus
and UCB bus if the system has any.
 Super I / O chip - it is a special chip connected to
the ISA bus. It includes most of the common
external units into one chip.
All of the more recent South Bridge chips include the
Super I / O functions and newer architecture do not need a
separate Super I / O chip.

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