MEMORY Memory, of which we speak here is called the working memory

Memory, of which we speak here is called the working
memory and is built into the computer itself. Working
memory is the one memory that the processor uses for
immediate storage and supply data. While the computer is
on and processing data, the data and programs can be found
in the working memory. Usually a few bits is stored in a
specific location in memory. That place is called the
memory location. [1]
RAM is a memory with limited access. It is a working
memory in which you can write and read data from it as
many times as you want. The stored data remains in this
memory until they are deliberately changed or until the
power supply is interrupted. The main features of RAM are
capacity and speed. It is desirable that RAM has a larger
capacity in order to store more data. [1]
SRAM (Static Random Access Memory) or static
working memory is a type of memory in which each bit is
stored in one of bistable circuits located in the memory
integrated circuits. Without external shocks, bistable circuit
permanently occupies one of the two stable states. The
transition from one state to another encourages the
appropriate signal from outside and the state can present a
logical 0 and logical 1. The registered data will remain
stored until a power failure or intentional changes. The
benefits of SRAM memory is very fast memory access.

disadvantage is relatively large dimensions of the bistable
circuits which limits the number of bistables that can be
placed on a plate. [1]
DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) is a type of
memory where each bit is stored as a charge in miniature
condenser located in the memory integrated circuits. Data
exchange with DRAM memory is slower and more
complicated than the exchange with SRAM memory due to
the need to renew the charge in the capacitor in order to
preserve data. The advantage of DRAM capacitors is the
small dimensions. Therefore there can be more of them on
the same plate. The disadvantage is the need for relatively
complex drive frame and slow work caused by restoring
memory. [1]
Because of its importance and cost computer memory is
built so that it can be easily installed and modified. To
facilitate the expansion of memory it is sold and installed in
the so-called memory modules. Memory module is a printed
circuit on which the memory integrated circuits are soldered,
and on one edge there are connectors. There are several
different models of memory modules that are not
interchangeable. SIMM (Single Inline Memory Modules) is
the oldest type of memory modules and not used more in
modern computers. There are versions with 30 and 72
contact. They must be installed in pairs. DIMM (Dual Inline
Memory Module) is currently the most prevalent types of
memory modules. There are versions with 168 and 184
contact. They can be installed individually. RIMM (Rambus
Inline Memory Module) is designed for Rambus memories.
There are versions with 168 and 184 contact.
Port for the processor, or socket, is the connector that the
processor is plugged into. In all motherboards processor is
connected through the socket so it could be changed. The
reason is twofold. On the one hand, making it possible to
install the motherboard processor according to user
preference, on the other hand it is possible to substitute in
case of failure. [1]
The processor is a semiconductor device in which one
plate of a semiconductor holds all the important parts of the
central processing unit, such as for example the arithmeticlogic unit, internal tanks, supervisory circuits, etc. [1]
Intel was the first who invented the first processors that
user could install and replace and has developed standards
for the CPU (Central Processing Unit) sockets and slots that
allow different models of equivalent processors to go on the
same socket. The main finding was the use of ZIF (Zero
Insertion Force) design for sockets, which means that the
processor can be easily placed or removed without tools.
ZIF sockets use the lever that engages or releases chip, and
is open until the chip can be easily removed and replaced by
another. ZIF sockets have a label that is usually printed on
them, which indicates the type of socket. [2]
All processors were mounted on sockets, but Intel and
AMD in 1990’s temporary switch to the processors that
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plug into the slots on the motherboard because the L2 cache
memory, which is located on a separate chip, started to be
added to the processors. Then the processor is located on
two different chips and the costs of such processors were
higher. Then Intel began to incorporate Intel L2 cache
directly on the processor die, which meant no additional
chips. Shortly after that AMD has done the same. [2]
Since 2000 Intel and AMD are in constant rivalry. Since
switching from one, and later 3 megahertz, introducing 64-
bit processors, the introduction of multi-core processors,
either on one or more chips, to the possibility of improving
the performance of videos, pictures and web operations and
the minimum use of energy a lot of novelty can be expected
of the two leading manufacturers.
Bus is standardized connection to exchange data
between two or more devices. By this definition bus
includes all connections to exchange data. [1] Considering
the place of exchange of data bus is divided into internal and
external. The internal bus is used to exchange data within a
computer and an external bus is used to exchange data
between a computer and peripheral devices.
Bus is usually performed as a conductor on the surface
of the printed circuit board, and is connected to the
terminals for additional circuits in the computer. There are
three main types of buses. Data bus is a set of guidelines for
the transmission of electrical signals that represent data. The
number of these guides is equal to the number of bits that
can be processed by the CPU. Address bus is a set of
guidelines for the transmission of electrical signals, which
are represents the addresses, and their number depends on
the computer architecture. Control bus is a set of guidelines
for the transmission of electrical signals which represents
the supervisory and control signals, and their number and
function vary from computer to computer. Additional
assemblies, which are subsequently incorporated into the
computer must be connected to the bus in the computer and
are built mostly as printed circuit boards with soldered
electronic components and connectors on one end. In order
to avoid that every computer manufacturer has its own bus
several standardized internal bus was arranged. [1]
PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) bus is the
most common in most PC’s. It has general purpose and is
intended for connection to different cards. It is independent
of the processor, and in principle can be used with any
processor which enables the processor and the bus to work
at different speeds. In addition, the PCI bus can
communicate directly with the memory. Benefits of PCI bus
are high-speed, independance of applied processor,
adaptation to new computer architectures, automatic
configuration and good definition. The PCI bus supports a
'plug and play' technology which is its important advantage.
Significantly improved PCI bus is a PCI Express bus
that transmits data over high speed serial channels (corridor)
and in essence can support multiple graphics devices. Speed
per a corridor was significantly increased compared to the
standard PCI bus. Within the corridors the transmission is
serial with a significantly improved synchronization system.
When the PCI Express bus uses more corridors for the
transmission of data it performes parallel transmission data
groups, which means that data has elements of parallel and
serial communication. [3]
AGP bus (Accelerated / Advanced Graphic Port) is a bus
connector primarily intended to display images (graphics
card). Requirements for data throughput of modern graphics
cards are such that virtually all the available capacity of the
PCI bus would be spent on serving the graphics card
significantly slowing the exchange of data with other
additional circuitry. Therefore, one AGP bus is added the
computer and is then used to display data on a monitor.

There are several models of motherboards, and when we
talk about the model motherboards usually entails format,
size and arrangement of elements on the motherboard.
Differences between models of motherboards are physical
size and shape, mounting locations, layouts, power
connectors, and more. There are dozens of official models
of motherboards, but only a few of them dominated the PC
industry. [4] In the following paragraphs you can read more
about these models of motherboards:
 Backplane Systems - components that are normally
found on the motherboard are located on the adapter
card that is plugged into the slot. Backplane systems
come in two forms: passive and active. Passive
design means that the main panel does not include
any electrical connections other than bus connectors
and maybe some compounds for powertrains. In the
active form panel contains all the classic
motherboard components except the processor. The
advantage of a backplane system is that it can be
easily upgraded with new processors and other
properties just by changing the card but are often
more expensive to upgrade. [3]
 Full-size AT - coincides with the original IBM AT
motherboard design. First appeared in August 1984
when IBM introduced the IMB PC AT (Personal
Computer Advanced Technology). Shortly after that
reducing the size of components started to progress
and thus decreasing the need for large
motherboards. [2]
 Baby-AT - can completely replace the full-size AT
motherboard and can be placed in several types of
housing. Because of the flexibility of the Baby-AT
that motherboard model was the most popular
model until early 1996 when the more powerful
ATX (Advanced Technology Extended)
motherboard design, which is not directly
interchangeable, began to replace it. [2]
 LPX - LPX (Low Profile eXended) and mini-LPX
motherboard model is semi proprietary design
which was originally developed by Western Digital
1987 for some of their motherboards. Most
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noticeable feature is that the slots for additional
extensions are placed on a raised card that plug into
the motherboard. The slots are located on one or
both sides raised card, depending on the system and
design of the casing. [2]
 NLX - an enhanced version of the LPX design
except that the NLX (New Low profile eXtended) is
fully standardized, which means that one NLX
motherboard can be replaced with another that is not
necessarily from the same manufacturer, which
could not be done with LPX motherboards. The
main feature of the system is that NLX motherboard
is inserted into a raised card unlike LPX systems
where raised card plugges into the motherboard. All
devices that normally connect to the motherboard
connect to the raised card. Therefore, the
motherboard can be extracted from the system
without disrupting the raised card or any expansion
card that is located on it. [2]
 BTX - Intel announces BTX (Balanced
Technology eXtended) model in 2003 with the
purpose to alleviate the increasing strength of
components and cooling requirements and to enable
better targeting of the circuit. Because of the new
trend for dual-processor the need for BTX model
decreases and in 2006 Intel gives up from further
development. BTX motherboard model is not
compatible with ATX model or some other design.
The input / output connectors on the back are
similar for BTX models and the ATX model but
they are on the other side of the motherboard. Some
major manufacturers have never even started to
produce BTX systems and held to ATX-based
systems. [2]
 ATX - ATX form is essentially a Baby-AT design
rotated by 90 º. Expansion slots are now parallel to
the shorter side of the motherboard and do not
disturb the CPU, memory and input/output
terminals. Intel also prescribed Mini-ATX, which is
not an official standard as the two official versions
microATX and FlexATX models that are intended
for cheaper and more consumer-oriented systems
and personal computers. They can use the
specialised SFX / TFX (Small Form Factor / Thin
Form Factor) power supply because they require
less energy. [2]
The aim of this study was to determine how well the PC
users know their motherboard, have they met with
malfunctions and determine the incidence of occurrence of
failures on the motherboard in each category of using a
computer. According with this goal set following
H01: There is no statistically significant difference in the
occurrence of malfunctions on motherboards with respect to
the purpose of computer use.
This study was conducted using a survey method of
testing. The survey was made with Google's service for
creating documents 'Google Docs'. Questions in the survey
are composed to give everyone an opportunity to reply, they
do not engage in extensive and unnecessary detail, and
provide a quality way to obtain the required information
from the user.
The research results have been collected in an on-line
database of Google's tools to create online surveys. The
survey was conducted from June to August 2012. Survey
was anonymous and collected 328 completed
Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and to
test the hypothesis using the chi-square test. Statistical
analysis of data was made in Statistica8

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