Georgia in the Feudal Relations Stagnation Period


Georgia in the Feudal Relations Stagnation Period
(XVI–XVII cen.)
At the end of the XV cen. and in the beginning of the XVI cen. the neighbours of Georgia became
two strong kingdoms – Ottoman-Turks Empire and Iran of Sephevids. They began to run the strictly
expressed aggressive policy towards Georgia from the very beginning. The struggle of Georgians
for independence and original culture, which lasted during 300 years, began. The background of
this struggle was frequent internal wars, which made the condition of politically separated Georgia
worse. For example only Kartli kingdom held 14 wars against Iran, 11

 wars against Turks and 13
wars against other Georgian kingdoms in the XVI cen.
The condition especially was aggravated after Iran and Turkey made agreement on sharing Iraq,
Kurdistan and Transcaucasus in 1555. According to this agreement the East part of Georgia was
declared as the dominion of Iran and the West part – the dominion of Turkey. But Georgians didn't
acknowledge this decision and still were fighting for independence. The kings of Kartli, Luarsab I
(1527–1556) and Simon I (1556–1599) should especially notified as the organizers of the national
forced resistance in the XVI cen.
At the beginning of the XVII cen. Ottoman-Turks managed to conquer Samtskhe Princedom.
The part of Samtskhe Princedom feudals accepted Islam and served Sultan. On the conquered
Georgian lands there was created the Ottoman-Turkish administrative unit Childiry Viliety, 

governing layer of which, including governor Pashas, mainly was the representative of Georgian
Feudalists, who accepted Islam.
The rest of the parts of Georgia managed to retain the State system, but had to recognize the
supremacy of conquerors: the kingdoms of East Georgia – Kartli and Kakheti became the vassal
(subordinated) of Shah of Sephevids, the states of West Georgia became the vassals of Ottoman
Sultan. But even this model of relation didn't set peace, because conquerors longed full
incorporation of Georgia, and Georgians were trying to use every chance of revival of
The situation especially was aggravated in East Georgia in the first half of the XVII cen. when
Shah Abbas I decided to exile Georgians to Iran or exterminate them, 

and to settle Iranians on their
lands. The armies of Shah took 100 000 people as captives only from Kakheti, almost the same
number of people was exterminated. After invasions of Shah Abbas there wasn't left even half of
the population in Kakheti. But Georgian people failed the plans of Shah with their heroic struggles.
In 1625, with t he leadership of the King of Kakheti, Teimuraz I and Kartlian general, Giorgi
Saakadze, the active Iranian Army in Georgia was destroyed in the rebellion, Shah Abbas was
forced to recognize the fact of existing of Georgian kingdoms.
The situation in East Georgia was comparatively stable from 30s of the XVII cen. when the two
sides reached the compromise: the kings of Kartli and Kakheti recognized the supremacy of Iranian
Shah, and the latter didn't intervene in their internal affairs.
Between the political units in West Georgia in the XVII cen. there were the permanent
struggles, which were used by Turks to strengthen their influence. They occupied several coastal
points and supported the slave-trade, the result of which was the exile of thousands of Georgian
The permanent invasions of foreigners and internal wars caused the new damage for the
country, weakened in the previous centuries. Economic was falling, many branches of agriculture
and handicraft were destroyed, the number of population abbreviated. These circumstances delayed
the further progress of feudal society development and in some places (especially in the highland)
caused the renewal of Early feudal and patriarchal institutions.

The economical revival of the country is notified only from the 40s of the XVII cen. and only in
East Georgia (Kartli), the condition of which as it was mentioned above, was comparatively stable
in this period. The situation caused the positive results for the civil life. The population of Tbilisi
was not more than 10 000 people at the end of the XVI cen. and in the second half of the XVII cen.
it was risen to 20 000. In this period Georgia had the closest economical relations with the cities of
From the XV cen. to the XVII cen. the Georgian culture was decreased. The Georgian
architecture of this period can not be compared with the brilliant examples of the X–XIII cen. In
Georgia of late medieval period such high educating-scientific centres as Gelati and Ikalto didn't
exist. The education mainly was given in the families and cloisters. From the XVII cen. in the
education sphere, the role of Western catholic-missioners was rising, which was establishing
schools in Georgia, where there were taught as catholic preach, so Italian and Latin languages, some
practical science etc.
In the XVII cen. the Georgian literature began to revive. The king Teimuraz I, who was warrior
and poet, put the national-historical motive in Georgian poetry. He dedicated the poem to the death
of his mother, queen Ketevan, who didn't refuse Christianity in the captivity of Shah and so was
killed. After Teimuraz, historical theme occupied important place in Georgian poetry.

legal consultations and travel advisor in the States and within UK

Media solutions , Media company , online classes , learn german , learn english , perfect language , blood cord , rehab , rehabiliations , rehabilitation center , magazitta

Post a Comment

Previous Post Next Post

Contact Form