Early ancient of Georgia the start 1


Early Ancient Georgia (till the end of the IV cen. B.C.)
Existence of ancient human being on Georgian territory is confirmed from the early stages of
anthropogenesis. Nearby Dmanisi valley (80 km south-west of Tbilisi) the remnants of homo
erectus are found, age of them is about 1,8 million years old. At present it is the oldest trace in
Euro-Asia. Later on the Stone Age a man took the whole territory of Georgia. Former settlements of
Ashel period (400–100 thousand years ago) are discovered as on the coast of the Black Sea as in the
regions within highland Georgia.
Approximately 6–7 thousands years ago people on the territory of Georgia began to use as the
instruments not only the stone but the metals as well. And in the IV–III mill. B.C. the ancestors of
Georgians learned to get and use the bronze. In the middle of the Bronze Age (the first half of the II
mill. B.C.) 

there existed the strong unions of tribes on the territory of East Georgia. In the big
excavations on the Trialeti Plateau, where the leaders of those unions used to be buried, are found
as the bronze instruments and the earthenware pottery, but also the amazing examples of the
Goldsmith Art.
Discoveries of recent years lead us to suppose that on the territory of modern Georgia in the
Bronze Age the sort of city settlements had already existed. In particular, in Kakheti region, East
Georgia, near Sagarejo, after air archaeological explorations they found the ruins of city surrounded
by steady stonewall, that are researched by Georgian and German scientists. It seems that this city
dated by XII-XI centuries B.C. was the fortified center of local tribes.
According to ethnic classification of Caucasian population the Georgians belong to PaleoCaucasian linguistic family, the representatives of which are descendents of ancient Caucasian
population (the name of "Paleo-Caucasian" comes from it). This family is divided into three
branches (groups): 1) Western, or Abkhazian-Adighei; 2) Eastern, or Chechen-Daghestanian; and 3)
Southern, or Kartvelian
. Accordingly, the Western branch combines modern Abkhazians,
Abazians, adighei, Circessians and Kabardians; the Eastern branch – Chechens, Ingushians and
Daghestan highland people (Avarians, Lezgians, Dargians, Laks and others); the Georgian branch is
represented by Georgian people comprising of three main sub-ethnic groups – Karts, Zanes or
Megrelian-Chans, and Svans. Previous division of Kartvelian language into Georgian, Zanian and
Svan branches started in III–II B.C.
In that epoch the Georgian tribes dwelled as on the big territory of modern Georgia, 

also in the
regions of North-East Anatolia. At the end of the II mill. B.C. and at the beginning of the I mill.
B.C. some of those tribes reached the threshold of the creation of the Country. In the XII cen. B.C.
at the sources of rivers Chorokhi and Euphrates the early-class union Diauekhi, which according to
some scientists was a union of Georgian tribes was created. The population of Diaukhi had to hold
hard struggles against the strong kingdoms of the Front Asia - Assyria and Urartu. In the IX–VIII
cen. B.C. Urartu destructed and conquered Diauekhi. After that the kings of Urartu began the wars
against the KartvelianUnion on the Bank of the Black Sea - Kolkha. Kolkha must have been that
Kolkhida Kingdom, information about it is saved in the old Greek Legend about Argounauts.

 In the
30–20 years of the VIII cen. B.C. this early Kolkhidian Kingdom was destructed by the Kimirians
from North.
In the VII–VI cen. B.C. the Kolkhidian State was revived again as it seems. Its center of must
have been on the river Rioni (old Phasis). The basis of this period's Kolkhida was the developed
agriculture, cattle-breeding and the iron metalurgy. On the basis of the internal developing, on the
Rioni Valley was created the city-like settlements. In the VI–III cen. B.C. here began the process of
minting of silver coins for the internal market.

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