Pipelines and liquidation process of gas


Pipelines can measure anywhere from 6 to 48 inches (15-120 cm) in
diameter. In order to ensure their efficient and safe operation, operators
routinely inspect their pipelines for corrosion and defects. This is done with
sophisticated pieces of equipment known as “pigs.” Pigs are intelligent
robotic devices that are propelled down pipelines to evaluate the interior of
the pipe. Pigs can test pipe thickness, roundness, check for signs of
corrosion, detect minute leaks, and any other defect along the interior of the
pipeline that may either restrict the flow of gas, or pose a potential safety risk
for the operation of the
pipeline. Sending a pig
down a pipeline is fittingly
known as “pigging.” The
export facility must contain
equipment to safely insert
and retrieve pigs from the
pipeline as well as
depressurization, referred
to as pig launchers and
pig receivers.
Loading on tankers
involves loading systems, ranging from tanker jetties to sophisticated singlepoint mooring and loading systems that allow the tanker to dock and load the
product, even in bad weather.

.1 LNG liquefaction and regasification facilities
Natural gas that is mainly
methane cannot be
compressed to liquid
state at normal ambient
temperature. Except for
special uses such as
compressed natural gas
(CNG), the only practical
solution to long distance
gas transportation when
a pipeline is not available
or economical is to
produce LNG at -162 °C.
This requires one or
more cooling stages. Cooling work consumes 6-10% of the energy to be
transported. Special insulated tank LNG carriers are required for
transportation, and at the receiving end, a regasification terminal heats the
LNG to vaporization for pipeline distribution. Photo: Cove Point LNG Regas terminal

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