Regional production trends Over the 1990s of ironing industries

 Regional production trends
Over the 1990s, the distribution of the CO2 emissions from the iron and steel industry shifted considerably
over the world regions. This is due to a decline in production and emissions in the countries of the former
Soviet Union and Eastern Europe on the one hand and to a rapid increase of production and emissions in
China and other developing countries on the other hand.
The energy consumption per ton steel produced is typically 19 to 40 GJ/tcs for an integrated steel mill
using a BOF and 30-45 GJ/tcs for an integrated steel mill using open hearth furnaces (De Beer et. al.,
1999). A scrap based minimill uses typically 7.7-12.5 GJ/tcs, a DRI (gas)-EAF typically 22-30 GJ/tcs and
a DRI (coal)-EAF typically 30-40 GJ/tcs (De Beer et. al., 1999; IISI, 1998).
Iron and steel plants (especially integrated steel plants) often generate part of their own electricity
consumption. Fuel input data (e.g. as given in the following sections for each of the countries) do not give
an indication about the fraction of electricity generated within the plants, nor how these fuels are used
within the plant.
There are large regional differences between energy performance of steel making. This is due to
differences in operation and maintenance of the processes, the fuel input and the different use of new
technologies. The outdated open-hearth furnace has been completely replaced by the oxy-steel process
(first introduced in the 1950s) in the developed countries. In the former Soviet Union, however, this
process is still in operation. India also operates open hearth furnaces. 

China also still operates open hearth
furnaces, but intends to have them all closed in 2000.
A new process, Corex, has been developed that avoids the need for the coke processing step (and a coke
plant). This means that the Corex process is less energy, emission (and capital) intensive than traditional
steel-making routes. It also allows lower grade coals and ores to be used, which are more readily available
worldwide. Corex plants are currently installed in only a few countries (e.g. US, India, Japan and South
Africa), although are planned in more (e.g. Thailand). Because of its limited use to date, this production
route is not taken into account on a detailed level here. Future analysis of the uptake of this process will
need to assess to what extent its lower GHG emissions should influence the suggested standardised energy
values presented here.
An indication of the energy efficiency changes in iron and steel production of the processes in a number of
selected countries is given in Figure 25 (adapted from Phylipsen, 2000). 

This includes the energy use from
the reducing agent. The figure presents data at a national level (i.e. including all process routes) and
therefore gives an indication of the efficiency of the iron and steel industry in the different countries. As
can be seen from this figure, Brazil is relatively efficient and has a lower energy efficiency index than
many OECD countries. The reforms in the Polish iron and steel sector are also visible, with an energy
efficiency index of around 230 in 1991 and slightly more than 150 in 1998. Substantial improvements in
the Indian energy efficiency index (EEI) are also noted between 1985 - 1995.

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