Electric vehicles, or EVs, are now all over the news.

 Electric vehicles, or EVs, are now all over the news.
However, the term "electric vehicle" is an umbrella term, and in
reality EVs aren't necessary all no-emissions vehicles. EVs can still
utilize a traditional combustion engine as well as a battery-powered
motor, and can even generate electricity without having to plug
into a charge station.
Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)
The Prius is the most famous of this type of EV, which utilizes a
traditional internal combustion engine (ICE) with electric
propulsion, meaning that the ICE will charge the batteries to power
the electric motor.
HEVs still require fuel to operate,
though they have a much higher
fuel economy and less carbon
emissions than traditional ICE
The drawbacks of a HEV is its
heavier weight due to the sheer
number of components involved as
well as the price. Because of the
number of components, on average
HEVs can cost a few thousand
dollars more than ICE vehicles.
However, this cost can often be
offset with governmental subsidies. 

Figure 1.1.
Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)
Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)
FCEVs use fuel cells to combine hydrogen and oxygen, producing
electricity, which then runs the motor. The battery captures braking
energy, conserving extra power to smooth out power from the fuel
Figure 1.2.
Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)
An interesting distinction of the
FCEV is that the only emissions are
water vapor and warm air. However
the drawback of the FCEV is its
higher cost and difficulty in
As of January 2021, there are 45
hydrogen fueling stations, 

43 of
which are in California. However,
with around 8,000 FCEVs in the
state alone, many panicked when
hydrogen ran low earlier in the year.
Manufacturers are trying hard to
make up for this by luring buyers
with lucrative discounts and even
,maintenance and fuel fees, so that along with the federal and state
incentives for buying FCEVs, drivers can enjoy an extremely low net
price. If the hydrogen shortage can be resolved, then this may be
an ideal option for drivers in California.
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)
As its name suggests, PHEVs can be charged for power and runs
mostly on the electric motor. However, it still utilizes fuel (like
gasoline or diesel) to power the combustion engine, but the engine
itself is considered to be backup.
The downside of the PHEV is
that the prices can be higher
than other vehicles and
because of the number of
components involved, like the
HEV, can have a heavier
But there are many benefits
to a PHEV. Along with less
fuel consumption and less
carbon emissions, users can
enjoy less range anxiety
(more on that with the BEV)
as there is a backup power
source in case the battery
charge runs low. The PHEV is a popular option for EV users, and
over 40 models are available on the market, mostly in China,
followed by the United States and the United Kingdom.

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